An Efficient Normalisation Procedure for Linear Temporal Logic: Isabelle/HOL Formalisation

Salomon Sickert

8 May 2020

Abstract

In the mid 80s, Lichtenstein, Pnueli, and Zuck proved a classical theorem stating that every formula of Past LTL (the extension of LTL with past operators) is equivalent to a formula of the form $\bigwedge_{i=1}^n \mathbf{G}\mathbf{F} \varphi_i \vee \mathbf{F}\mathbf{G} \psi_i$, where $\varphi_i$ and $\psi_i$ contain only past operators. Some years later, Chang, Manna, and Pnueli built on this result to derive a similar normal form for LTL. Both normalisation procedures have a non-elementary worst-case blow-up, and follow an involved path from formulas to counter-free automata to star-free regular expressions and back to formulas. We improve on both points. We present an executable formalisation of a direct and purely syntactic normalisation procedure for LTL yielding a normal form, comparable to the one by Chang, Manna, and Pnueli, that has only a single exponential blow-up.
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